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1 de 7
Economic Analyses of Industrial Research Institutes in Developing Countries: The Indian Experience.
Katrak, Homi
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 337 - 347
INDIAS IDUSTRIAL RESERACH INSTITUTES
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-001
Recent changes in the Indian governments economic policies have raised questions about the performance of its Industrial Research Institutes (IRIs). Regression tests, with data supplied by three of the IRIs, show a modest, but significant, improvement in their performance. One IRI has increased its earned revenues by more than the increases in its expenditures and has also more than offset the cuts in government funding. Another IRIs profile of development projects showed a significant shift from collaborative to sponsored projects and the latter have lower developmental costs, for given duration. The third IRI has succeeded in attracting a larger number of client enterprises and also increased the overall sales of its new developments. These improvements in the IRIs performance may also have enhanced wider aspects of economic welfare, though further policies to spread these benefits are desirable.

2 de 7
On the Structuring of Variation in Innovation Processes: A Case of New Product Development in the Crop Protection Industry.
Den Hond, Frank
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 349 - 367
CROP PROTECTION INDUSTRYINNOVATION PROCESSESNEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENTINVENTIONSINDUSTRIAL RESEARCH
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-002
The analysis of new product development at industrial research laboratories is an important source of empirical knowledge of innovation processes. It may be particularly revelant for better understanding the generation of variety in innovation processes. The paper argues that the generation of variety is not a fully stochastic process. It is argued that pressure from the selection environment and the structuring of knowledge generation may be such that at different places, highly similar research lines develop which result in highly similar inventions.

3 de 7
Organizational Processes to Meet New Performance Criteria: Chinese Pharmaceutical Firms in Transition.
White, Steven
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 369 - 383
CHINESE PHARMACEUTICAL FIRMSPERFORMANCE CRITERIAORGANIZATIONAL PROCESSES
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-003
The current crisis in Chinas state-owned enterprises presents a paradox of performance. Since reforms began in the early 1980s,many state-owned enterprises are producing and selling more, some even reporting increasing profits. Recent discussions of the crisis facing these firms, however, reveal that most of the gains in these performance outcomes has been achieved without regard for efficiency; in many cases, simply by increasing inputs. Only now has the government explicitly recognized the need to shift emphasis from measures of performance based on scale whether output, sales or profits to those incorporating considerations of efficiency return on output, sales and assets. We investigate the managerial and policy implications of such a shift in key performance criteria using longitudinal data on 66 Chinese pharmaceutical manufacturers. We find that both level and growth in physical assets are the strongest correlates of scale-based performance measures. In contrast, activities which bring in engineering skills, lead to new product development, and increase the proportion of output that is actually sold are the strongest correlates of efficiency-based performance measures. For mangers and policymakers, these results have important implications for the timing and level of investment in particular organizational activities and resources.

4 de 7
The Relevance of Science and Technology Indicators: The Case of Pulp and Paper.
Laestadius, Staffan
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 385 - 395
ECONOMICS OF INNOVATIONR AND DINDUSTRIAL INNOVATIONPULP AND PAPER (P AND P)SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (S AND T)
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-004
This paper is based on a detailed analysis of knowledge formation an technical development within pulp and paper (p and p) technology. In section two it is shown that aggregated published statistics are not reliable for a deeper understanding of R and D activities in p and p technology. The third section contains an in-depth study of the development of thermopulp technology an incremental innovation crating a more energy efficient process for thermomechanical pulping. It is shown that only some 20 por ciento of total development costs are accounted for as R and D. In the fourth section it is argued that project groups responsible for ventures like the recently installed paper machine in Braviken, Sweden, in fact carry out important innovative activities characteristics for this technological system. The innovativenees of these concentrations of engineers is not accounted for as R and D. The long-term potential for p and p technology is probably related to the ability of the actors to transform products and processes to a more intensive use of biotechnology. This transformation processes may be classified as a radical technological change, or even a shift of technological pradigm. The dominant science and technology (S and T) indicators do not capture this process, however. The conclusion formulated in section six is that the dominant S and T indicators provide us with very blunt tools for understanding and explaining industrial and technological change.

5 de 7
Science Policies as Principal Agent Games. Institutionalization and Path Dependency in the Relation Between Goverment and Science.
VaN der Meulen, Barend
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 397 - 414
PATH DEPENDECYINSTITUTIONALIZATIONPRINCIPAL-AGENT THEORYFORESIGHTSCIENCE POLICY
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-005
National science policies seem to converge in policing the double-edged problem of how to get policy and industry interested in the conduct of science and how to get science interested in the problems of policy and industry. However, similarity in the labels of institutes and instruments for science policy conceals traditional differences in the institutionalization of the relation between the state and science. This article conceptualizes the relation between government and science as an ongoing principal-agent game, with different possibilities for stabilization. Each of these differ to the extent the principal or the agents can pursue their strategy. Institutionalization of The Endless Frontier ideology, of consensus-making and of competition between agents is elaborated. Path dependency emerges as costs for industrial changes are often higher than the accomodation of new instruments and policies to existing structures. The argument is mainly and deliberately analytical, but empirically illustrated by the development of foresight in the UK, Germany and the Netherlands.

6 de 7
A Topology of Networks: Flexible and Evolutionary Firms.
Belussi, Fiorenza
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 415 - 428
FROM TRANSACTION COSTS TO NETWORK COSTSA NETWORK TYPOLOGY AND SOME ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLES FROM ITALYAN OVERVIEW OF NETWORKING COSTS AND OPPORTUNITIES
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-006

7 de 7
Analysis of In-House R and D Centres of Innovative Firms In India.
Sikka, Pawan
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 27 No 4 August (1998) página 429 - 433
INNOVATIVE FIRMSIN-HOUSE R AND D CENTRESINDIA
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-011-007
The performance of in-house R and D centres of major Indian innovative firms, indicates that there is a need for forging, strong linkages between the in-house R and D centres and the national laboratories and technical institutes in order to attain technological competence in the industrial sector. National R and D labs and technical institutes have been advised to actively collaborate with the industry.

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