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1 de 11
The Drivers of Cooperation Between Buyers and Suppliers for Product Innovation.
Bidault, Francis
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 719 - 732
BUYERSESISUPPLIERS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-001
This article reports the results of an empirical study that probed the adoption of Early Supplier Involvement (ESI) in the product development process. ESI is defined as a form for vertical cooperation where manufacturers involve suppliers at an early stage in the product development/innovation process, generally at the level of concept and design. Previous research has shown that Western automobiles manufacturers obtained significant benefits by emulating the ESI practices of their Japanese competitors; the bulk of research knowledge is in fact, located in this domain. This study focused on a group of assembly-based industries outside the automotive setting to determine if the adoption and benefits of ESI are found in other domains as well. Twenty-five companies in three non-automotive industries participated in the research. A model of ESI adoption was developed and tested, and an ESI index created to determine the degree to which this practice was applied. The results reveal, among other things, that the level of ESI practice is strongly related to a higher number of supplier base initiatives, lower product integration, broader supplier scope and a higher proportion of parts purchased. Significant results were also obtained in comparisons between industry sectors and geographic regions (USA, Western Europe and Japan). We suggest that promising directions for future research include broad-based samples acroos industrial sectors and industry-focused empirical study.

2 de 11
Location of Innovation Activities, Industrial Structure and Techno-Idustrial Clusters in the French Economy, 1985-1990. Evidence from US Patenting.
Bergeron, Sophie
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 733 - 751
PATENTINDUSTRYTECHNOLOGICAL FIELDCLUSTERINNOVATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-002
This paper deals with the distribution of innovating activities across industries and technological areas in the context of a Knowledge-based Economy. The results are based on data concerning French firm patenting in the US (over the period 1985-1990). Each patent is identified by the industrial sector in which it is produced and by the technological field in which the patent application has been made. Innovative activities are concentrated in a few industrial sectors and in a few technological fields. Our main contribution concerns techno-industrial clusters (blocks of technological knowledge structured by a set of industrial sectors). On the basis of an algorithm (Zig-Zag) we identify several techno-industrial clusters, three of which underpin the French system of innovation: chemicals, electronic and communication, transport and mechanical engineering. Our analysis shows that the strong patterns derived from the most complex cluster deal with sectors that invest intensively in R-D. Such a result confirms the view concerning the emergence of pervasive technological families.

3 de 11
The Influence of Local Search and Performance Heuristics on New Design Introduction in a New Product Market.
Martin, Xavier
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 753 - 771
PERIOD OF FERMENTPERFORMANCE HEURISTICSMAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-003
This study develops and tests three sets of predictions concerning new design introduction during the initial period of ferment in a new product market. We root our predictions most directly in the evolutionary economic concepts of local search and performance heuristics. First, we argue that new entrants will introduce most designs that are new to a product market during an initial period of ferment. Second, we argue that local search will lead most product market incumbents that introduce second or subsequent designs after their entry to introduce designs that are similar to those incorporated in their existing products. Third, we argue that firms selling products based on designs that are losing aggregate share in the market will be likely to introduce products based on new designs, while firms losing market share to firms that are selling the same design are unlikely to introduce new designs. Our empirical analysis examines the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) subfield of the diagnostic imaging equipment idustry between 1980 and 1986, a period that begins with the introduction of the first MRI design and ends with the emergence of widely accepted design characteristics. The results support the argument that local search and performance heuristics, along with other market factors and business characteristics, influence design introduction during a period of ferment.

4 de 11
Does Sticky Information Affect the Locus of Innovation? Evidence From the Japanese Convenience-Store Industry.
Ogawa, Susumu
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 777 - 790
CONVENIENCE-STOREPRODUCT INNOVATIONPROBLEM SOLVINGINFORMATION TECHNOLOGYSTICKY INFORMATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-004
Scholar have long discussed the locus of innovation and its determinants. There is empirical evidence that innovations can be developed by those holding any of a number of functional relationships to them such as manufactures, users, or materials suppliers. Past studies have considered two factors important in predicting the functional locus of innovation. One is expected profit of a player invloved in the innovation and the other is stickiness of innovation-related information. Although some studies have shown empirically the link between an innovators expected profits and the locus of innovation, no research has yet been conducted to test the hypothesized relationship between stickiness of innovation-related information and the locus of innovation. In the study reported upon here, I explore relatioships between these two variables via a study of 24 innovations for the Japanese convenience-store industry. My study shows empirically that stickiness of innovation-related information does have the hypothesized relationship to the functional locus of innovation. I discuss implications of these findings and some directions for future research.

5 de 11
Quantitative Assessment of Large Heterogeneous R and D Networks: The Case of Process Engineering in the Netherlands.
W. Tijssen, Robert J
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 791 - 809
R AND D COLLABORATIONACADEMIC-INDUSTRY RELATIONSKNOWLEDGE CREATION AND TRANSFERINNOVATION-ORIENTED R AND D NETWORKS AND T INDICATORS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-005
Large R and D networks are characterized by complexity. They are usually extremely heterogeneous in terms of their variety of interconnected institutions from both the public sector and private sector, and the various activities outcomes and effects which make up this web of relationships. Clearly, numeruos analytical problems have to be faced when examining such a networks key characteristics and trying to establish its effectiveness. This article presents key results of an empirical case study aimed at analysing such an R and D network. The study deals with a nation-wide innovation-oriented network in the Netherlands in the field of process engineering, covering both Ph.D. training R and D, and design activities. Relevant information about the network was derived from a combination of data extracted from an annual R and D report and opinions of netork participants gathered through a suibsequent mail survey. Various quantitative indicators were used to describe and compare institutional features of this cross-institutional network and determine the effectiveness of its bilateral links. On the whole, the results reveal a diversified, vigorous and fairly successful network. The network seems less effective in terms of technological development and innovation activities in comparison to knowledge creation and transfer.

6 de 11
International Diffusion of a New Tool: The Case of Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) in the Retailing Sector.
Jimenez Martínez, Julio
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 811 - 827
EDIINFORMATION TECHNOLOGIESDIFFUSION OF INNOVATIONSRETAILING
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Ingles
RRP-006-006
This paper studies the diffusion of EDI in the relating sector of a number of European countries. It contains a comparative analysis between these countries with respect to different aspects of this tool. It also sets out to demonstrate the relationship between the telecommunications sector, the relating sector and the demand for information on the one hand, with the diffusion and the lag in the adoption of EDI in this sector on the other.

7 de 11
Innovation and Export Behaviour at the Firm Level.
Wakelin, Katharine
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 829 - 841
EXPORT BEHAVIOURFIRM LEVELINNOVATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-007
This paper considers the role of innovation in determining export behaviour for a sample of UK firms including both innovating and non-innovating firms. Export behaviour is defined both as the probability of a firm exporting and the propensity to export of the exporting firms. An empirical model of the determinants of export behaviour is estimated, and the determinants are found to vary between innovating and non-innovating firms. Non-innovative firms are found to be more likely to export than innovative firms of the same size. However, the number of past innovations has a positive impact on the probability of an innovative firm exporting. The paper concludes thatthe capacity to innovative changes the behaviour of the firm relative to non-innovating firms.

8 de 11
On the Dynamics of Appropriability, of Tacit and of Codified Knowledge.
Saviotti, Pier Paolo
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 843 - 856
CODIFICATIONTACIT KNOWLEDGEAPROPRIABILITY
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-008
The main objective of this apper is to study the relationship between codification and apropriability. Both codification and appropriability are not interpreted here as discrete variables, but as describing a range of possible situations, from the completely tacit to the completely codified, and similarly for appropriability. It is argued that the degree of codification increases with the age and maturity of a discipline/research tradition. Appropriability is found to depend on: (a) the degree of codification, (b) the fraction of the population of agents knowing the code, and (c) the distribution of knowledge among the agents who are potential users of knwoledge. Thus, we can expect the intrisic appropriability of a discipline/research tradition to fall both with the degree of codification, which increases with the maturity of the discipline/research tradition, and with the fraction of the population of agents knowing the code. Such tendency can be counteracted by the strategies of some agents attempting to advance the knowledge fronteir fast enough to leave behind other agents. The analysis contained in this paper refers only to the internal or intrisic appropriability of a discipline/research tradition. However, the appropriability of a discipline/research tradition can be raised by other means, for eaxmples, by combining what could be considered the core knowledge of an organization with complementary assets (e.g., legal, marketing, financial competencies, etc). Such further mechanisms of creation of appropriability are not studied in this paper.

9 de 11
Innovation Systems and Technological Specialization in Latin America and the Caribbean.
Alcorta, Ludovico
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 857 - 881
NATIONAL SYSTEMS OF INNOVATIONTECHNOLOGY POLICYCARIBBEAN COUNTRIESLATIN AMERICATECHNOLOGICAL SPECIALIZATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-009
This paper examines the National Systems of Innovation (NSI) of Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries and attempts to assess their performances. Although it points out at a number of specific successes., overall, the regions NSI have evolved since their inception in the 1950s into weak entities. Science and technology institutions and organizations are not fully performing an enabling role; links and interactions between government support organizations, businesses and academia are tenuous; invesment in intangibles and human capital is low; and, public policy is only partially effective. The main result of such weakness is that LAC countries innovative performance has, as measured by the index of the technological specialization (ITS) which relates the worlds normalized shares of high-to low-tech exports, with the only exception perhaps of Mexico, remained stagnant or has fallen and has lost relatively to many countries that started at similar levels twenty yeaers ago.

10 de 11
Combining Technology and Corporate Strategy in Small High Tech Firms.
J. Berry, Maureen M
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 883 - 895
MANAGERIAL INTEGRATIONBUSINESS STRATEGYTECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-010
The gap between technology management and business planning in the small high tech firm has been variously described as an opportunity area, a source of strategic weakness, and a root cause of competitive disadvantage. Similarly, the link between technology strategy and corporate strategy has been viewed as a natural concomitant of growing maturity in the small high tech firm, an integral and necessary evolution in corporate philosophy, and a positive task for an increasingly professional management team. The purpose of this paper is to report on an empirical research project into these issues. A survey of 223 small high tech firm located on science parks was carried out, though the analysis presented here concentrates on the 150 or so of the sample that carried out in-house R and D work. The discussion indicates a strong evolutionary effect within which firms demonstrate a high degree of informality and flexibility in early stages of the firms life in terms of both technology strategy and overall business strategy. As the firm develops, formality increases significantly and the the technology-push imperative gives way to a powerful market orientation. The results give empirical support to a number of concepts that have been developed in the literature in small high tech firms, and also raise a question about the impact of multinationality on the development of such firms.

11 de 11
Why Science is Endogenous: A Debate With Paul David (and Ben Martin, Paul Romer, Chris Freeman, Luc Soete and Keith Pavitt).
Kealey, Terence
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 7-8 Abril (1998) página 897 - 923
PAUL DAVIDSCIENCE POLICY LITERATUREREVIEW
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-006-011

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