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1 de 7
Modeling Systems of Innovation: An Enterprise-Centered View.
Padmore, Tim
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 605 - 624
INNOVATIONINNOVATION SYSTEMENTERPRISEINNOVATION SURVEYMEASUREMENTMODELSFIRM
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-001
Bussines enterprises operate as components of what is commonly referred to as a system of innovation. The system of innovation is the context foa process of innovation that can be decribed in terms of the knowledge sources and flows that lead to commercial advances. In this paper, we develop a model of the innovation process and to the system of innovation in which it takes place. The model, which describes the system from the perspective of the firm or enterprise, has the following properties: (a) it is flexible in its application but symmetrical in structure, making it easier to generalize or specialize, (b) it is simple, which helps makers and implementers of policy to visualize their role in the system; and (c) it is quantifiable, which aids comparison among firms and firms and among different systems of innovation. We make some applications of the new model, and show how other frameworks can be mapped onto it. In particular, we show the relationship with the European Communitys model Innovation Survey and based on that, amke some comments on future directions for survey instruments.

2 de 7
Modelling Systems of Innovation: II. A Framework for Industrial Cluster Analysis in Regions.
Padmore, Tim
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 625 - 641
INNOVATIONCLUSTERREGIONALMEASUREMENTCOMPETITIVENESS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-002
We present a model for describing and assessing the strengths and weakesses of industrial clusters from a regional perspective. The model is a symmetrical framework combining dimensions of the Porter competitiveness diamond with an equally explicit accounting of infrastructure and markets, important in a regional framework. Measures are organized under heading of Groundings, Enterprises and Markets, which gives the models its name: GEM. The characteristics of regional innovation systems are contained in the overall competitiveness framework. The GEM determinants are organized in a way that facilitates subjective scoring and allows a mapping onto a more conventional production-system structure. We have developed scoring criteria for each of the six determinants that relate to overall competitiveness of the cluster and have established an heuristic competitiveness fusction (GEM Assay) that captures the substitution/complementary relationships among the determinants. We present some examples of the use of the framework and the assay in assessing regional clusters and policies for strengthening them.

3 de 7
Towards Knowledge-Based Product Development: The 3-D CAD Model of Knowledge Creation.
Baba, Yasunori
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 643 - 659
KNOWLEDGEJAPANESE FIRMSCONCURRENT ENGINEERINGPRODUCT DEVELOPMENTCAD
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-003
This paper argues that new 3-D CAD systems can play a central role in the creation of knowledge-based product development system. Based on a model of product development and knowledge creation which incorporates 3-D CAD technology, the paper argues that information technologies can contribute not only to efficiency improvements but also to improved hypothesis creation capabilities in engineers and organizations through technical features such as full visualization, digital pre-assembly and simulation. This paper also discusss the factors that hinder the effective introduction of 3-D CAD technology as well as the potential management and organizational requirements for successful adaptation. Firms need to have both long-term and system-level perspectives and they need engineers who have a broader set of integrated skills that were previously scattered over multiple functions.

4 de 7
Improving the Effectiveness of Public Private R and D Collaboration: Case Studies at a US Weapons Laboratory.
Ham, Rose Marie
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 661 - 675
PUBLIC PRIVATE COLLABORATIONCRADAR AND D
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-004
This paper presents the results of the first systematic case studies of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements (CRADAs) betwen private firms and one of the large US weapons laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). These cases cover a diverse array of technologies, and include firms with very different characteristcs (participant firms differs, for example, in their size and internal R and D budgests). They are intented to illustrate the operation of CRADAs in different settings. Our study suggests that CRADAs between the DOE laboratories and industry are most effective for projects that draw on the historic missions and capabilities of the laboratories, rather than for projects that focus on civilian technologies with litle relevance to these missions. Efforts to improve the operation of CRADAs must look beyond the establishment and assignment of intellectual property rights to actions by laboratory and firm personnel in at least four areas: (1) increasing budgetary and managerial flexibility in project operations; (2) ensuring a high degree of commitment by the collaborating parties and continuous interaction between the research teams; (3) improving laboratory researchers familiarity with user needs; and (4) developing sufficient internal R and D technical expertise within the collaborating firm (s) to absorb and apply the results of collaboration. Evaluations of CRADAs that rely on quantitative estimates of the direct benefist of these projects in the immediate aftermath of their completion also appear to be unreliable and distorted.

5 de 7
Determinats of University Participation in EU-Funded R and D Cooperative Projects.
Geuna, Aldo
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 677 - 687
EU FUNDINGR AND D COOPERATIONUNIVERSITY RESEARCH
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-005
This paper examines the factors that influence university participation in R and D cooperative projects supported by the EU, using an original data set of the total population of universities in the EU countries in 1992. An econometric model is developed to test for the relevance of university size, scientific research productivity, and other fized factosr on two dependent variables. The first is the probability of joining an EU-funded R and D cooperative project; the second is the number of times a university participated in these cooperative projects. The results indicate that the probability of taking part in an EU-funded R and D project depends primarily in the scientific research productivity of the university. The factors that explain the number of times a university participated in a project include scientific research productivity, size, and differences among countries and scientific fields.

6 de 7
Product Complexity, Innovation and Industrial Organization.
Hobday, Mike
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 689 - 710
INNOVATIONINDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATIONPRODUCT COMPLEXITY
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-006
This paper highligths distintive features of a neglected class of economic activity in the domain of innovation, namely the creation and development of high cost, complex products and systems (CoPS), asking how their nature might be expected to affect innovation and industrial organization. It argues that because CoPS are highly customised, engineering-intensive goods which often require several producers to work together simultaneously, the dynamics of innovation in CoPS are likely to differ from mass produced commodity goods. To consider the argument, the paper describes some of the defining features of CoPS and counterpoises two ideal-type innovation schemes: a conventional mass production innovation scheme, and an idealization more suited to CoPS. Implications for innovation and industrial coordination are discussed, pointing to the project and the project-based organization as natural CoPS organizational forms. While major differences between groups of CoPS are apparent, user involvement in innovation tends to be high and suppliers, regulators and professional bodies tend to work together with users ex-ante to negotiate new product designs, methods of production and post-delivery innovations. Markets are othen bureaucratically administered and contestability is low contrast to commodity goods which are characterized by arms-length market transactions. In relating the critical attributes of CoPS to industrial processes and organizational form, the paper emphasises the wide variety of possible innovation paths and points to the CoPS project, rather than the single firm, as a chief unit of analysis for innovation, management and competition analysis.

7 de 7
Institutions and the Map of Science: Matching University Departmnets and Fields of Research.
Bourke, Paul
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 6 February (1998) página 711 - 718
INTERDISCIPLINARYPOLICYRESERACH ASSESSMENTDEPARTMENTSFIELDS OF RESEARCH
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-005-007
It is an increasingly common practice within universities to use departments as units of research funding and there exists in the form of the extensive British Research Assessment Exercise (RAE) a national funding system which is essentially tied to departments as units of analysis. Yet the interdisciplinary nature of modern scientific research, where researchers in departments publish in journal across a range of fields outside their nominal disciplinary affiliation, is an ackmnowledged norm in the university research community. This paper uses complete data for all Australian universities to explore the correspondence between the designations of departments and the designations of the fields and subfields to which members of these departments contribute through their publications. Previous studies of this aspects of knowledge production have centred primarily on micro-level data relating to particular specialities and departments. We suggest that the use of performance indicators at the level of university departments inevitably obscures important features of moders research. Any attempt to introduce a system-wide evaluation of research based on the university department would have particular disadvantages for interdisciplinary research and for those newer institutions which have not organized their academic structures along traditional departmental lines. We suggest in relation to research funding bodies, either internal or external to the university, that there should be an increased use of field-coded research information.

Los resultados en: Libros Tesis Revistas Gacetas Videos
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