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1 de 11
Patents, Licensing, and Market Structure in the Chemical Industry.
Arora, Ashish
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 391 - 403
CHEMICALsMARKET STRUCTUREPATENTSLICENSING
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-001
The strategies of rent appropriation and industry structure are inter-dependent. How firms use patents dependes upon industry structure, and in turn, affects industry structure. In the 19th century, market leaders in the chemical industry combined patents and secrecy to deter entry. Within cartels, patents were used to stabilize cartels and organize technology licensing. The role of patents changed in the less concentrated post World War II markets. In bulk organic chemicals and petrochemicals, chemical producer use licensing as an important means of generating revenue from process innovations. The increased importance of technology licensing is closely related to the emergence of a class of specialized process design and engineering firms that have played an important role in the development and diffusion of process innovations.

2 de 11
Learning and Path-Dependence in the Diffusion of Innovations: Comparative Evidence on Numerically Controlled Machine Tools.
Mazzoleni, Roberto
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 405 - 428
PATH -DEPENDENCENUMERICALLY CONTROLLED MACHINE TOOLSLEARNING
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-002
Before the decline of the U.S. machine tool industry and the rise of the Japanese one over the course of the 1980s, the development and diffusion of numerically controlled (NC) machine tools in the two countries occurred along different trajectories. While the closed-loop design had emerged as the dominant product configuration in the U.S. market since the invention of NC in 1952, advances in component technologies led to the development and commercialization of the simpler open-loop systems in the mid- 1960s. Their diffusion in Japan was much greater than in the U.S. and essential to the creation of a market for low-cost NC machine tool. The paper argues that the diferences in the diffusion of the two designs resulted from the path-dependence engendered by the learninig processes according to which the two markets envolved. In U.S., the development of the technology and the emergent industry structure fostered a trajectory of producers and users learning that emphasized the machining precision of NC. In Japan, the development of the technology focused on its benefits for manufacturing flexibility. This paper analyzes how the different perceptions of the technology influenced the strategies of firms in the industry, the adoption behavior of users, and thus the market outcome of the diffusion processes.

3 de 11
Present at the Biotechnological Revolution: Transformation of Technological Identity for a Large Incumbet Pharmaceutical Firm.
Zucker, Lynne G
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 429 - 446
TRANSFORMATIONPHARMACEUTICALINCUMBENTCOLLABORATIONBIOTECHNOLOGY
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-003
Management of successful incumbent firms experience difficulty in recognizing the need for, and effecting change in the firms technological identity after an externally generated shift in the industrys technological trajectory. Nonetheless, some large pharmaceutical firms have transformed their technological identity in drug discovery from a chemical/random screening to biological/drug design model. We report how one of the worlds most successful incumbents transformed. Technically sophisticated senior mangement championed the transformation. It was achieved primarily through hiring many new scientists embodying biotechnology; existing personnel acquired the expertise or left. Continual self-transformation is part of the corporate ethos. Some differences in incumbent and entrant technology remain: incumbents use a wider range of techniques consistent with their complementary assets. Publication and incentive compensation policies are driven by the beed to attract and retain the best scientists. Professor firm collaborations are ubiquitous, often non-publioc, and best identified in quantitative analyses by co-publishing. Collaboration with new biotechnology firms are used primarily to substitute for developing internl expertise judged of marginal value. No drug-discovery collaborations exits with other major incumbents. We identify another seven or eight incumbents similarly transforming as indicated by top scientific talent and patenting success.

4 de 11
Evaluating Government-Sponsored R and D Consortia in Japan: Who Benefits and Now?.
Sakakibara, Mariko
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 447 - 473
JAPANKNOWLEDGE SHARINGR AND D CONSORTIAINDUSTRIAL POLICYCOOPERATIVE R AND D
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-004
A large sample of government-sponsored R and D consortia in Japan is analyzed, based on the data of 237 consortia organized over 34 years and 398 responses to questionnaires distributed to high-level corporate R and D managers who have participated in R and D consortia. My analysis shows that there is no clear link between the existence of R and D consortia and industry competitiveness. Government support of R and D consortia is modest and declining. R and D consortia participants perceive sharing complementary knowledge to be the simple most important objective of R and D consortia. There is evidence that R and D. The perceived benefits of projects are rather intangible, such as researcher training and incrased awareness of R and D in general. Opportunistic behavior and spillovers of proprietary technology to participants are not perceived as severe problems in conducting cooperative Rand D. The overall subjective evaluation of the typical projects success is modest, an participants do not perceive R and D consortia to be critical to the establishment of their competitive position.

5 de 11
Regional Innovation Systems: Institutional and Organizational.
Cooke, Philip
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 475 - 491
LEARNINGINNOVATIONSYSTEMSREGIONINTERACTION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-005
The paper explores the case for Regional Systems of Innovation. Acknowledging the major contribution of research on National Innovation Systems, it suggests that for conceptul and methodological reasons, mostly concerninig problems of scale and complexity, that approach may be complemented in important ways by a subnational focus. Taking an evolutionary economics standpoint, the paper specifies the concepts of region, innovation and system as the prelude to an extended discussion of the importance of financial capacity, institutionalised learning and productive culture to systemic innovation. Building on the notion of regions as accupying different positions on a continuum referring to processes constituting them and their powers vis-a-vis innovation policy, the paper concludes by advocating strengthering of regional level capacities for promoting both systematic learning and interactive innovation.

6 de 11
Why has Britain Had Slower R and D Growth?
Van Reenen, John
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 493 - 507
PANEL DATABRITISH TECHNOLOGY POLICYR AND D
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Ingles
RRP-004-006
This paper examines R and D investment in the major industrialized countries since 1974 using industry level panel data. Several hypotheses are examined concerning why Britian has had slower growth in R and D compared to other countries. Using decomposition techniques UK R and D intensity appears lower mainly because of lower R and D acroos a range of industries (within industry) rather than a slower restructuring towards high tech sectors (between industry). Estimation of an econometric model for R and D shows that the significantly lower UK is partially accounted for by lower demand growth and faster withdrawal of government funding for R and D in the 1980s. The bulk of the UK penalty in R and D growth remains, however, unexplained.

7 de 11
Price Indexes for PC Database Software and the Value of Code Compatibility.
Harhoff, Dietmar
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 509 - 520
TECHNICAL CHANGEHEDOMIC METHODSPRICE INDEXES
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-007
Changing product quality poses a challenge for the computation of price indexes, in particular in technologically advanced industries. We assess the differences between traditional and quality-corrected indexes by computing hedonic and matched-model price indexes for personal computer database software. Our database covers the price development in Germany from 1986 to 1994. Quality-adjusted software prices declined by 7.4 por ciento according to our hedonic index. Surprisingly, a matched-model index based on linking the prices of directly comparable program versions decreases even faster than the hedonic index (9.3 por ciento). This unusual result is apparently caused by the simultaneous selling of old and new versions of a given software product. The estimation results also confirm the importance of network effects. Code compatibility, i.e., the capability of executing programs written for the dominant database product, yields a significant price premium. The ability to read and write data in the dominant spreadsheet format (file compatibility) is also associated with higher prices, but the price differential is much smaller than in the case of code compatibility.

8 de 11
Nature and Impact of Innovation in Manufacturing Industry: Some Evidence From the Italian Innovation Survey.
Evangelista, Rinaldo
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 521 - 536
COMMUNITY INNOVATION SURVEY (CIS)R AND DMANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-008
Using data on more then 22,000 manufacturing firms participating to the second Italian Innovation Survey, fresh evidence is presented on the number of firms involved in innovation, the total expenditures devoted to innovation and the quantity and quality of innovating output. The most important innovation expenditures are investment in new machinery and R and D. The existence of major croos-industry differences are however confirmed. Within the group of innovating firms, the small ones do not emerge less innovative than the large ones. However, data clearly show that small firms introducing innovations are a minority and that they account for only a small share of total innovation expenditure of the Italian manufacturing industry. The paper also quantifies the share of new products and processes on total sales showing that a substantial part of sales in the manufacturing industry (62 por ciento) is made of unchanged products and processes and only 1.2 por ciento of total sales is made of entirely new products. It is also shown that only to a limited extent the innovation patterns highlighted in this article reflect the peculiar characteristics of Italian industrial structure. Most of them are common to most of the European countries which have taken part to the Community Innovation Survey (CIS).

9 de 11
Innovation in Services.
Gallouj, Faiz
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 537 - 556
SERVICE SECTORINNOVATIONLANCASTERIAN REPRESENTATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-009
The purpose of this article is to lay the foundations of a theory that can be used to interpret innovation processes in the service sector. The hypothesis underpinning this article is based on Lancasters definition of the product (in both manufacturing and services) as a set of service characteristcs [Lancaster, K.J., 1996. A New Approach to Consumer Theory. J. Political Economy 14,133-156.]. The article follows the example of those who have sought to apply Lancasters work to technological phenomena. Various modes of innovation in the service sectors are highlighted and and illustrated.

10 de 11
On the Orgaization of Agricultural Research in the United Kingdom, 1945-1994: A Quantitative Description and Appraisal of Recent Reforms.
Thirtle, Colin
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 557 - 576
PRIVATIZATIONAGRICULTURAL AND FOOD RESEARCHUNITED KINGDOMRESTRUCTURING
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-010
In this paper we review recent, radical changes in the structure and funding of agricultural and food research in the United Kingdom. We assemble data on the contributions of both public and private institutions during the past fifty years to put these changes in grater perspective. They are then explained by the interaction of procative governmental policies for agricultural and food industries, driven by external considerations, with more reactive policies, motivated by problems particular to these industries. Essentially, the assumption that government intervention is required only when market incentives fail has distated that public funding should be reallocated from technology transfer activities, and productivity enhancing and near market research, to basic research, which affects a broader range of industries than just the food and agriculture industries, and to public interest research on pressing problems of food safety and environmental protection. We conclude that the much heralded notion of progress through partnership of the public and private sectors is not succeeding since the latter has not, taken up the research abandoned by the former.

11 de 11
Research Joint Ventures in the US.
Vonortas, Nicholas S
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 4-5 December (1997) página 577 - 595
COOPERATIONINNOVATIONNATIONAL COOPERATIVE RESEARCH ACTRESEARCH JOINT VENTURER AND D
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-004-011
This paper contributes to the ongoing policy debate concerning inter-firms cooperation in R and D. In addition to an overview of the prevalent characteristics of the research joint ventures registered with the US Department of Justice between 1985 and 1995, the paper initiates an inquiry into the characteristics of participating business firms and the type research activities pursued collectively. The analysis draws on information from a rich new database covering all such joint ventures and their participants. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

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