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1 de 7
New, Technology-Based Firms in Innovation Networks Symplectic and Generative Impacts.
Autio, E
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 263 - 281
INNOVATION NETWORKSINNOVATION THEORYTECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONINNOVATIONS SYSTEMSNEW,TECHNOLOGY-BASED FIRMS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-001
The traditional body of research on new, technology-based firms reflected the linear sequential view of the technological innovation process. The "modern" innovation theory views the innovation process as a complex, iterative process, that is essentially systematic in character. The systematic view of the technological innovation process largely remains to be implemented in research on new, technology-based firms. The present study represents an attempet to bridge this gap, by applying a systematic approach to research on new, technology-based firms. The empirical part of the present study develops and empirically tests a model that classifies new, technology-based firms into science-based firms and engieneering-based firms. The two categories are defined in terms of the functional relationship between the new, technology-based firm and the articulation process of basic technologies. In the model, new, technology-based firms are analyzed in terms of the systematic knowledge conversion to which they are attached. The model receivers support in three empirical databases, complied among new, technology-based firms in Finland, the United Kingdom, and Silicon Valley. The analysis of the Silicon Valley database is the first ever systematic survey of the spin-off firms of Stanford University.

2 de 7
Determinants of Patent Rights: A Croos-National Study.
Ginarte, Juan C
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 283 - 301
INTELLECTUAL PROPERTYECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTINTERNATIONAL COMPARISONSR AND DPAETNT LAWS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-002
This paper presents an index of patent rights for 110 countries for the period 1960-1990. The index is used to examine what factor or characteristics of economies determine how strongly patent rights will be protected. The evidence does indicate that more developed economies tend to provide stronger protection. But the underlying factors which influence patent, protection levels are the countrys level of research and development (R and G) activity, market environment, and international integration, which are correlated with its level of development. The results qualify, however, that R and D activity influences patent protection levels after a nations research sector reaches a critical size. An implication of this is that to raise patent protection levels in weakly protecting countries, it is important to foster a significant research base in those countries and thereby create incentives for protecting patent rigths.

3 de 7
Internal R and D Expenditure and External Technology Sourcing.
Veugelers, Reinhilde
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 303 - 315
EXTERNAL SOURCINGTWO-WAY RELATIONSHIPINTERNAL R AND DCOOPERATION
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-003
The paper examines the two-way relationship between external R and D activities and internal R and D expenditures on a croos-section of Flemish R and D active companies. The analysis extends the classical explanatory variables like size, diversification, ownership structure and technological opportunities to include the impact of various external sourcing strategies. R and D cooperation and to a lesse extent R and D contracted out are found to have a significant positive effect on internal R and D department. At the same time, firms are found to be more frequently engaged in R and D cooperation, the more they spend on internal R and D.

4 de 7
The Increasing Linkage Between U.S. Technology and Public Science.
Narin, Francis
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 317 - 330
OVERALL LINKAGE CHARACTERISTICSMETHODOLOGYCITED U.S. SCIENCE
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-004
A detailed and systematic examination of the contribution of public science to industrial technology would be useful evidence in arguing the case for govermental support of science. This paper provides such an examination, by tracing the rapidly growing citation linkage between U.S. patents and scientific research papers. Seventy-three percent of the papers cited by U.S. industry patents are public science, authored at academic, govermental, and other public institutions; only 27 por ciento are authored by industrial scientists. A strong national component of this citation linkage was found, with each countrys inventors preferentially citing papers authored in their own country, by a factor of between two and four. Particularly rapid growth was found for the dependence of patented technology on U.S. papers. References from U.S. patents to U.S. authored research papers have tripled over a six-year period, from 17,000 during 1987-1988 to 50,000 during 1993-1994, a period in which the U.S. patent system grew by only 30 por ciento. The cited U.S. papers are from the mainstream of modern science: quite basic, in influential journals, authored at top-flight research universities and laboratories, relatively recent, and heavily supported by NIH, NSF, and other public agencies.

5 de 7
Growth and Inventiveness in Technology-Based Spin-Off Firms.
Lindholm Dahlstarnd, Asa
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 331 - 344
METHOD AND DATATHE LITERATURE ON ENTREPRENEURIAL SPIN-OFFS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-005
This study on technology-based spin -off firms that have had their initial product idea originated in the previous employment of the number. Such entrepreneurial spin-offs (ESOs) arise when an entrepreneur leaves an organization to start a firm of his own. Using the data from 60 small Swedish technology-based firms, 30 such entrepreneurial spin-offs are identified. It was found that as many as two-thirds of the spin-offs had originated in private firms, and only one-sixth from universities. In this paper, the background and the performance, in terms of growth and inventiveness, are compared for the spin-off and the non-spin-off firms. It was found that, after an initial ten-year period, the spin-offs were growing significantly faster than the non-spin-offs. However. no siginificant difference in the inventiveness was found between the two groups. Neither the growth nor the inventiveness coud be expalined by pre-spin-off variables, but it is speculated that the earlier employment within the spin-off parent has indirectly influenced the performance of the spin-off firms.

6 de 7
From Technological Potential to Product Performance: An Empirical Analysis.
Iansiti, Marco
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 345 - 365
EMPIRICAL METHODEMPIRICAL RESULTSCONCEPTUAL FOUNDATIONS
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-006
R and D effectiveness is based on the ability to translate fundamental research advances into effective products. In this paper, we analyze the linkage between the process followed by an R and D organization and its product outcome. We first develop a methodology to analyze a products characetristics in terms of its technological potential and its technological yield. The first measures the products maximun potential performance given its base of fundamental technology; the second measures the extent to which this potential is translated into actual or realized system performance, and probes whether the fundamental technologies employed are well integrated with their application context. We apply these measures to empirical data from the global computer industry. We find that technological potential is related to depth in specialized research, while technological yield is associated with the process for technology integration. The analysis therefore shows that the products mirror the organization that conceived them integrated products are correlated with organizational processes aimed at integration. The findings have significant implications for the design of R and D organizations and processes.

7 de 7
Which Way to Go? Defence Technology and the Diversity of Dual-Use Technology Transfer.
Molas Gallart, Jordi
Research Policy, University of Sussex, Brighton, North - Holland - Amsterdam
Research Policy Vol. 26 No 3 October (1997) página 367 - 385
DUAL-USE TECHNOLOGIESARMS PRODUCTIONDEFENCE TECHNOLOGYTECHNOLOGY TRANSFER
Servicio de referencia sección de publicaciones periódicas, Biblioteca "Dr. Nectario Andrade Labarca"
Ingles
RRP-003-007
In recent years, dual-use policies have become a widely promoted response to the problems faced by defence producers confronting the decline in defence expenditures, the continuing growth in the cost of new weapons systems, and the changing relationship between military and civilian technologies. A consensus has developed on the importance of dual-use policies, but no agreement seems apparent on what they are; such confusion derives from the variety of dual-use technologies, and the even broader array of mechanisms by which they can be transferred across military and civilian applications. By suggesting a typology of dual-use technology transfer mechanism this paper provides a platform for the comparison and analysis of different dual-use policies. It identifies four main types of dual-use technology transfer mechanisms, all different in nature and purpose. The main difference is established between straight and adaptational mechanisms, depending on whether the technology transfer mechanism is concerned with adapting the technology to its new applications. Straight mechanisms do not require any change in the ways in which defence-oriented R and D and production is organized. In comparison, adaptational mechanisms are more ambitious policies and risker, but may be a necessary answer to the structural problems faced by the industry.

Los resultados en: Libros Tesis Revistas Gacetas Videos
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